IBHS Fortified Home

The ASHRAE Guide for Buildings in Hot & Humid Climates recommends to design and construct buildings in hurricane prone areas using the following steps in order of priority: keep the building from blowing away; keep the rain out; elevate the structure above the flood plain; build with materials that tolerate soaking; and design the wall assemblies to easily dry when they become wet.

IBHS Fortified Home

The ASHRAE priorities may not be practical when retrofitting an existing house. Therefore consider using the Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety’s (IBHS) FORTIFIED Home™  Hurricane Standards for upgrading  your house.  The IBHS FORTIFIED Home™ relies on an inspection to certified that your home meets one of three levels Fortified Roof, Silver, or Gold. Potential home insurance savings are available with each level.

Fortified Roof

The IBHS FORTIFIED Home™ identifies the roof as the most important component in protecting your house. The first of three levels of certification is the FORTIFIED Roof. If the roof has less than five years life left it should be replaced. When replacing the roof, the existing shingles should be removed and the new roof should comply with the following:

  • the roof deck should be a minimum of 7/16” plywood or OSB,
  • attached with 8d shank nails spaced nominally at 6” on center or 4” on center for buildings within 600 feet of the ocean,
  • sealed with a qualified system such as a full layer of self-adhering polymer modified bitumen membrane. If the roof is asphalt shingles the membrane should be covered with 15# building felt,
  • a drip edge must be installed, and
  • the new roof covering must be high-wind rated and installed per manufacturer’s installation instructions.

If the roof does not need to be replaced, it can be structurally reinforced and sealed with closed-cell, polyurethane foam applied to the underside of each roof rafter or truss. Replacing attic insulation with closed-cell polyurethane foam at the underside of the roof deck solves other problems as well. It keeps hot humid air out of the attic, therefore creating a more efficient building envelope and heating and air conditioning system.

Silver Standard

The silver level builds on the bronze by certifying that all doors and windows are pressure and impact rated. If the existing opening do not meet the pressure and impact requirements you can protect the opening with qualified opening protection systems. This can be as simple as pre-cut 5/8” marine grade plywood or advanced as custom made hurricane shutters. The silver level also requires attached porches and carports to be properly connected to prevent uplift.

Gold Standard

The most advanced level, gold, includes stabilizing gable walls and installing connections to prevent uplift. The house will be tied together from the roof rafters to the walls, the walls to the floor, and the floor to the foundation.  Chimneys must also be properly attached to the building.

 

Another important preventive measure is to keep trees trimmed of dead wood. Dead wood is the first to become detached and a potential missile attacking the house.

The FORTIFIED Home™  is applicable for both new construction, re-roofing of existing houses and renovations. To learn more about the FORTIFIED Home™  program visit the IBHS website https://fortifiedhome.org/.


construction costs

Construction Costs

Many people who are contemplating building a new home are surprised at the cost of construction. This is especially so since the beginning of the pandemic.

Current Trends Affecting Construction Costs

Recently, I met with the Manufacturer’s Council of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). Among the topics discussed was the current housing market, building product prices and supply chain disruptions. Kermit Baker, Chief Economist, AIA said that spending on buildings in 2021 was $1.3 trillion with the majority of the spending on homes. This is almost 5% of our GDP.

Interestingly, homebuilding activity has been heavily concentrated in affordable Sunbelt markets. In metro areas that issued more than 1,000 permits, three of the top ten nationally,  in change  housing permits in the last year are Greenville, Columbia and Myrtle Beach.  We are experiencing tremendous growth here in Beaufort County, too.

There is a pent up demand for houses because of the low level of homebuilding during the last decade and the rising median age of the housing stock. The median age of houses in 1985 was 22 years and by 2017 the median age was 40 years.

But there are some issues facing the homebuilding market:

  • Rising demand coupled with a low inventory of homes has rapidly pushed up house prices.
  • Rampant inflation has made it more expensive to build homes, and rising mortgage rates makes it more expensive to buy them.
  • Supply chain disruptions have made some products available only with extremely long lead times.
  • There is an emerging construction labor shortage that is likely to get worse.
  • All of the above are all creating problems as housing demand promises to remain strong in the coming years.

The sources of construction cost inflation have been a moving target. Since April of 2021, the price of lumber has fallen over 90% after doubling in price in 2020. But steel, plastics, gypsum, glass and concrete have all doubled in price since April of 2021. Many of the manufacturers spoke of the need for supply chain resiliency with stockpiling materials to draw from in order to respond to demand as opposed to “Just in Time” inventory that was put in place during the great recession.

Designing for Hurricanes & Earthquakes add to the Construction Costs

Construction costs are higher in Beaufort County because we are in both a hurricane zone and an earthquake zone. The requirements to mitigate both of these hazards include the following:

  • Building the first floor above FEMA’s base flood elevation which adds to the foundation cost.
  • Structural Engineering fees to design code compliant structural systems.
  • Connecting the roof, through the walls to the foundation and footing with threaded rods, go-bolts, hurricane clips or other code approved methods. This adds to both the material and labor costs.
  • The shear walls required for lateral stability are more expensive than sheathing options available in other parts of the country.
  • Window and door openings must be protected from windblown debris. Impact rated windows can cost up to twice as much as non-impact openings.

Best Practices

There are several best practice options that will cost more initially but will either save money on your home insurance or utility bill that we recommend.

  • A secondary roof under a metal roof that ensure water tightness if the roof is compromised during high winds.
  • An U.L. certified lightning protection system will add $7,000 to $10,000 to a 2500 s.f. house but will protect your house and electronics from lightning strikes during our many lightning storms.
  • Spray foam insulation is typically 2 to 3 times more expensive than fiberglass insulation but is a far superior product. It stops air and moisture infiltration, will not sag, keeps dust and pollen out and reduces capacity requirements, maintenance and wear of heating and air conditioning equipment.

TV remodeling shows also add to unrealistic time and cost expectations. Those shows often have donated materials, low cost fees from the contractors and have pre-built a large portion in a warehouse prior to the show.

Cost, square footage (both inside and outside) and quality of materials and workmanship are the triad of construction. If cost is the driving issue in your project you must be flexible in the size of the project and the quality of materials and workmanship.


Riparian Buffers

Almost every month there are variance requests before the Beaufort County Zoning Board of Appeals for waterfront buffer setbacks. It seems that many of the applicants do not understand the intent and importance of riparian buffers.

A riparian buffer is the land bordering waterways characterized by a cover of naturally occurring vegetation consisting of trees, shrubs, and native grasses.  The benefits include:

  • preventing erosion,
  • abating flood and storm damage,
  • providing wildlife habitat,
  • improving aesthetics of water corridors, which can increase property values, and
  • maintaining and improving water quality and overall health of the eco-system by filtering pollutants from runoff. According to the EPA, riparian buffers “act as natural filters of nonpoint source pollutants, including sediment, nutrients, pathogens, and metals to water bodies.”

Protecting our water quality is especially important when you consider that 222,080 of Beaufort County’s 590,720 acres are covered by water. In 1999, Beaufort County adopted the River Buffers and Natural Resource Protection in the Zoning and Development Standards Ordinance. The riparian buffer helps meet the values outlined in the comprehensive plan of preserving our natural systems, ensuring clean water and pursuing environmentally responsible development.

Best management practices for riparian lands according to South Carolina Department of Natural Resources include the following:

  • A minimum 50-100 foot riparian buffer should be established and maintained along both sides of the waterway.
  • The disturbance of the natural ground cover should be minimized and native vegetation should characterize the buffer. New native vegetation might need to be added to the buffer.
  • Lawn should be outside of the riparian buffer, at least 50 feet from the waterway.
  • New buildings should be located outside the 100-year floodplain and set back at least 100 feet from the waterway.
  • To protect the scenic quality in the river corridors, thinning in the riparian buffer should be limited to the lesser of either 75 feet or one third of the lot width.

Beaufort County and the municipalities within the county all have riparian buffer requirements that outline the minimum width of the buffer, vegetation requirements, and what is allowed in the buffer. The buffer is measured from the critical line established by the South Carolina Department of Ocean & Coastal Resource Management (OCRM). The requirements vary depending on the zoning district and can greatly impact the buildable area of a lot. Prior to buying waterfront property, it is recommended to have a surveyor, landscape architect or architect review the zoning requirements to determine the buildability of the site.


Porches

Every evening, Michael and I enjoy sitting out on the porch, while watching the sunset and listening to the tree frogs serenade us. With fall’s cooler weather we are reaching peak porch season. There are many factors to consider to create the best experience for outdoor living.

The best location for a porch is the south façade. This protects the interior from the hot summer sun and provides a cozy spot for winter days. Likewise, do not put porches on the north, unless it is a small covered entrance for a door.  Large porches on the north side of the house tend to be dark, dank and uninviting.

Most porches need to accommodate both an eating area and a comfy sitting area. Ten feet deep is a good starting point for the porch. Fourteen to sixteen feet is more gracious. Allow for at least three feet around all sides of a dining table to give maneuvering room for chairs.

Unless you are ocean front with a constant breeze, most people want to have a screened porch. Retractable screen are extremely popular because they can be rolled up when not in use and not block the view. Fenetex offers a dual insect and hurricane screen for the ultimate protection. Ceiling fans will help beat the heat and keep the bugs at bay. The ceiling fan should be U.L. rated for Wet Locations for safety and longevity of the fan.

Here in the lowcountry, many porches are raised to be out of the flood plain. If the house does not need raising, porches that are 30” or less from the adjacent grade, deck or terrace do not need a railing. This is ideal because the view remains open.

Adding an exterior fireplace to the porch to extends porch season to a year-round activity.

Finally, outfit the porch for leisurely visiting and entertaining with lowcountry favorites such as swinging day beds, joggling boards and Pawley island hammocks.

 


Improve your home

2021 Kitchen and Bath Trends

The American Institute of Architects (AIA) and the online home design platform Houzz, recently released independent reports on design trends for kitchens and bathrooms. The AIA’s research is gathered from a panel of 500 AIA architects who specialized in residential design. Houzz’s research is from their community of homeowners who have recently completed a renovation project.

Unsurprisingly, with more people staying at home due to the pandemic, there are new trends reflecting how we are adapting. Due to the desire the carve our personal space the request for an open concept floor plan by opening the kitchen up to other living spaces decreased significantly; the AIA reported an eleven percent decrease and Houzz a ten percent decrease.

As people limited their trips to the grocery store, pantries increased in size. The AIA and Houzz reported growth of 10% and 13% respectively. The AIA reported that pantries are not only bigger but they are now a work hub with an additional dishwasher, refrigerator and other small appliances. Pictured above is what our clients call their “Costco Room” in their under construction house- plenty of space for all the toilet paper.

Bluffton screen porch

Opening the kitchen to an outdoor living space continued to grow in popularity with outdoor kitchens the leading trend reported by the AIA.

According to the Houzz survey for style trends, the most popular style for kitchens is transitional, with modern and contemporary styles in a close second. Farmhouse style peaked in 2019 and continues to decline popularity.

The AIA found that the top three trends in bathroom design include larger curb-less showers, universal design for aging in place, and shower stalls without a separate tub in the bathroom. Houzz reported that only 10% of renovators include a separate bathtub.

Houzz renovators cited an old and outdated space as their primary reason for the project. Therefore 89% of the homeowners change the style of the bathroom. The desire for clean lines resulted in modern as the number one style for bathroom remodels with contemporary in a close second. Traditional and farmhouse are not as desirable.

Whole house remodels and additions grew by 27% in 2020 and kitchen and bath remodeling projects grew by 20% according to the AIA. Due to this increase, firm project backlogs are currently five to six months.

master bath

Though not cited in the research by Houzz or AIA, outdoor showers are very popular among our clients. I imagine this is a geographic trend, and that an outdoor shower is not requested often in a cold or snowy location. Here in the Lowcountry, the climate and the proximity to the beach make this trend popular and practical.


Climate Change Risks

Katherine Kokal of the Island Packet recently reported that Beaufort County ranks number one in the United States for climate change risks.

This assessment came from the data from the Rhodium Group and was analyzed by ProPublica and the New York Times Magazine. Beaufort County tops their chart of the risk caused by compounding calamities, including heat, wet bulb (how heat and humidity collide), farm crop yields, sea level rise, and economic damage.

You might wonder what you can do to reduce your carbon footprint. Many people do not know that 40 percent of energy in the United States is consumed by buildings, so there is a huge opportunity for building owners to make a meaningful impact. Architects around the country are contributing to significant reductions in carbon emissions by participating in the American Institute of Architects 2030 Commitment.

The 2030 Commitment is a platform for architects, engineers, and owners to work together toward the architecture and design community’s goal of achieving a carbon neutral built environment by the year 2030. The 2030 Commitment aims to transform the practice of architecture to respond to the climate crisis in a way that is holistic, firm-wide, project-based, and data-driven. 829 companies have joined the program.

Reporting firms in 2019 recorded 3.3 billion gross square feet across more than 100 countries. That’s nearly the size of New Mexico. And they achieved a 49 percent reduction in predicted energy use intensity – the greatest reduction in the program’s history.

Even small firms can make a big impact. I can confirm that firsthand. Our small residential firm reported a 75.6% reduction last year. Most of our clients do not ask for their projects to be sustainable, so to reach the 2030 commitment goals we have a dual approach.  First, focus on passive strategies such as building orientation, fenestration, and roof overhangs that minimize energy needs. Then use best practices in building science for hot humid climates with the correct detailing of drainage planes, air sealing and HVAC designs.

The second approach is harder because in our hot, humid climate we cannot reach 2030 commitment goals without on-site power generation. Many of our clients think that they want a back-up generator because of hurricanes. They usually opt for solar power when we make the case that, with the addition of a power wall of Tesla or SunVault batteries, they can store power for emergency use without a generator. With the Federal and State tax credits, and net metering, the payback is usually around 7-9 years. And that does not include the savings from not purchasing a nasty loud generator.

According to Architecture 2030, as much as 50 percent of a city’s greenhouse gas emissions can be produced by fewer than 5 percent of that city’s buildings.

One building, one project at a time really can make a difference.


Heritage Tourism

Heritage Tourism

Heritage tourism is defined as “traveling to experience the places, artifacts, and activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past a present” (according to the National Trust for Historic Preservation). In my role as president-elect of the American Institute of Architects, I recently led our delegation to the Union of International Architects’ forum in Baku, Azerbaijan. The focus of the forum was mass tourism in historic cities. The information was very practical for our historic town of Beaufort and the expected increase in tourism for the National Reconstruction Monument as well as general tourism on Hilton Head Island and the rest of Beaufort County.

Richard Engelhardt, Professor of Architecture, University of Hong Kong, and former UNESCO Regional Advisor for Culture in Asia and the Pacific, posed three questions that the forum set out to answer:

 How can you protect the authenticity and historic integrity of the city?

There needs to be a data driven integrated approach to tourism that local governments can use to make rules and regulations to manage tourism. Engelhardt said that one of the most important steps is that the city’s heritage plan and tourism plan have to be incorporated into one cohesive master plan. Nagore Espinosa, CEO at in2destination said that a successful tourism development plan includes all the systems in a city; transportation, health care, city planning, and emergency planning.

How does tourism add to the betterment of the community without compromising the significance of place?

Espinosa emphasized that tourism is a happiness business for tourists but more importantly for the residents and that “We cannot manage – what we cannot measure.” Tourism management based on data allows local government to enact regulations and provide the necessary resources to protect both the significance of place and the residents. Engelhardt stressed that the tourism industry has an obligation to the community and needs to invest in the restoration and maintenance of the heritage sites and natural resources; this should not be on the back of the local or national government.

How do you integrate tourism infrastructure into urban planning?

Engelhardt expressed that the carrying capacity of the infra-structure has to be realistically determined and incorporated into the plan. The local lack of infrastructure integration with tourism planning is visible every Saturday on the clogged highways heading onto Hilton Head and Fripp Islands for the weekly rental turnover. By staggering rental weeks to start on Friday, Saturday, Sunday and Monday the traffic could be reduced by a quarter as well as alleviating the crowded grocery stores.

Bálint Kádár, Assoc. Professor Budapest University of Technology and Economics spoke on the importance of understanding how tourist and residents interact in the city. He measured urban tourism by the quantification of geo-tagged photographs from open source data gathered from Flickr over a ten year period. People were categorized in three different groups:

  1. Tourists were identified by spending 3 or 4 days in a city and never returning. Sites visited mainly by tourists were coded red.
  2. Locals were identified by taking photographs over multiple months and years in a city. Locals’ locations were tagged green. Sites visited by equally by tourists and locals were tagged white.
  3. Long term tourists were identified by taking photographs in a city over several weeks or months and then leaving for extremely long periods of time. They were also coded red.

He used the data to compare Vienna and Prague because they have similar number of tourists every year. Each city had around 30 popular sites. In Vienna, there were 15 sites mainly visited by locals and 3 mainly visited by tourists with the balance visited equally by tourists and locals. The research showed the complete opposite in Prague with 15 sites dominated by tourists and 3 by locals. In Prague, locals no longer have access to their heritage sites. The authenticity and historic integrity of the city is lost when tourists take over the heritage sites and the city itself.

This tourist takeover can be mitigated by expanding the carrying capacity by including cultural activities such as plays and concerts as well as promoting outlying areas from the typical tourist sites.

In Beaufort County’s current strategic plan there is a goal of expanding heritage tourism. As citizens let’s insist that the County develops a data driven plan that is coordinated with all the municipalities and the military to  ensure that the tourism industry is creating happiness for both the visitor but more importantly for us, the residents.


hurricane damage

Designing to mitigate hurricane losses

As we enter into hurricane season, many people ask, "How can I build to mitigate hurricane damage?" Historically, we have worried more about hurricanes with high winds but Hurricane Florence proved that category 1 storms can be just as disastrous. Eight people in South Carolina died, property damage was over $607 million, and more than 2,000 homes were lost to flooding.

When building a new house there are three critical concerns in the design and construction in hurricane prone areas that address the simultaneous impacts of wind, rain, and flooding.

Keep the building from blowing away

The building must be tied together from the roof rafters to the foundation. The most common method employs hurricane clips and tie rods. The building must be designed to withstand wind shear which can be accomplished with plywood sheathing if there are limited amount of openings in the walls. Walls with large openings often require steel framing to withstand the wind shear.

Windows and doors need to be protected from flying objects. The simplest but not the cheapest is to install impact rated windows and doors. Other options include hurricane rated shutters, PVC coated woven fabric such as Wayne Dalton’s Fabric-Shield® or plywood panels cut to fit the openings and fastened as per the building code.

The exterior finishes should be rated to withstand hurricane force winds and be installed securely to the structure as per the manufacturer’s recommendation to meet the tested installation.

Keep the rain out

Keeping rainwater out of the building is fairly straightforward but only if design decisions are made to address it. As the building scientist William Rose observed, “If it doesn’t get wet…it can’t leak.” Thus, large overhangs help keep the building dry by reducing the amount of water flowing down the walls by a minimum of 50%.

Field experience shows that water leakage around doors and windows is very common. Therefore, sill pans and flashing are essential. Flashing has two distinct purposes; it keeps water from getting into the wall through joints and it guides water back out of the wall when some leakage does occur.

All exterior cladding will allow some moisture to pass through. The best way to capture the water and direct it out of the wall system is with a drainage plane which is a waterproof layer on the exterior of the wall sheathing. For the drainage plane to work correctly there is an air gap to promote drying. Likewise, a secondary roofing membrane will keep water out if the primary roof material is compromised.

Crawl spaces must be sealed against water leakage, humid air infiltration and vapor permeation from the earth. Closed crawl spaces do not have vents to the exterior. They are insulated at the perimeter wall.

Drain water away from house by using gutters and sloping the ground away from the building.

Prevent flood damage

The most important consideration is to elevate the structure and mechanical systems to minimize its contact with flood water and a potential storm surge. The new flood maps that will soon be adopted in Beaufort County are lowering the flood heights in many areas. It may be prudent to place your house at the current higher requirement because of rising sea levels.

Crawl spaces located in a flood zone need hydro-static vents to prevent flood waters from collapsing foundation walls. The hydro-static vents will allow flood water to enter and exit the crawl space. Charleston based Flood Flaps® provide a tight seal for a closed crawl space.

Finally, use materials that tolerate soaking and can easily dry.

 


Rooftop Solar in South Carolina

The state legislature passed a bill this week that signals a win for rooftop solar in South Carolina! It's called the SC Energy Freedom Act. The bill will allow the expansion of the solar market, both large scale and for residential installations.

Solar panels on custom spring island house
This house on Spring Island has a 10.50 kW solar array- see the completed project here.

In 2014, a state law passed that made South Carolina a viable market for solar power by enacting tax credits and net-metering requirements. To appease the power companies, the 2014 law included restrictions (or caps) on the amount of rooftop solar allowed in the service areas of SCE&G (now Dominion Energy) & Duke Power. These caps were reached this Spring. Without the bill that passed this week, the solar market would have collapsed in SC because net-metering would no longer have the same benefits.

What is Net-metering?

Net-metering is the process by which a home with rooftop solar sells excess energy to the utility company, and draws energy from the grid when the solar system is not producing energy (like at night). The customer will always have electricity, provided the grid is functioning properly. The new legislation requires that the utility companies buy power from customers producing excess energy at the same rate that they sell to consumers.

What about battery storage for solar energy?

Batteries like the Tesla Powerwall can be connected to solar panels to store excess energy. At times when the solar panels are not producing energy, the consumer can tap into the energy stored in the battery. These batteries are really cool, but they may not be practical for the average consumer. They are expensive and one battery probably does not have the capacity to power a whole house. The technology is rapidly advancing, and battery backup may soon be a more practical option. We have a number of clients who have installed solar connected batteries in order to keep essential appliances and lights on in the event of power failure. In our hurricane prone area, I think this approach is smart. Often, the days following a major storm are sunny, but it may take utility companies days to weeks to restore power. A house with a solar array + battery would be sitting pretty!

Two Tesla Powerwall2 batteries at a recent project
Two Tesla Powerwall2 batteries at a recent project

Net-metering is an essential piece of the growth of solar power in South Carolina. I congratulate the legislators that championed this bill. Alternative, renewable energy will continue to be a sound choice for South Carolinian's; both for our wallets and for our environment!


The Case for Resiliency

weather and climate disaster map
Credit NCDC.NOAA.org

According to NOAA, since 1980, the US has sustained at least 241 weather and climate disaster where the overall damage exceeded one billion dollars. Hurricanes are a combined 919.7 billion in total damages with an average of 21.9 billion per event. The other natural disaster in order of costs are drought, wildfires, flooding, freezes, winter storms and severe storms. The South and Southeast regions experience higher frequency of billion dollar disaster than other regions. In 2018 natural disasters cost the US $91 billion dollars.

resiliency coastal

Despite the evidence – we are ignoring the consequences of building in vulnerable places.

According to the National Institute of Building Science's research found that mitigation funding can save the nation $6 in future disaster costs, for every dollar spent on hazard mitigation. They also demonstrated that investing in hazard mitigation measures to exceed select building code requirements can save the nation $4 for every dollar.

They estimated that implementing these two sets of mitigation strategies would prevent 600 deaths, 1 million nonfatal injuries and 4,000 cases of post-traumatic stress disorder.

flooding resiliency

Resiliency is similar to sustainability but there is a difference. Sustainability is reducing a building’s impact on the environment and resiliency is reducing the environment’s impact on a building or community. Generally, sustainability initiatives are add to a building’s resiliency but some resiliency requirements are not as sustainable, especially when they are creating redundancy.

resiliency from hurricane

Resilience is about surviving and thriving regardless of the challenge, whether it is a chronic stress or an acute shock. Chronic stresses weaken the fabric of a city on a day-to day or cyclical basis. They include issues such as global warming, poverty, homelessness and aging infra-structure. Acute shocks are sudden sharp events that threaten a community. Often acute shocks are weather related but they can also be human induced such as an act of terror.

Four Kinds of Resiliency

Climate Resiliency

vulnerability to sea level rise map

Architect, Lance Hosey identifies four kinds of resiliency. The first is Climate Resiliency which is reducing the environment’s impact on the building. Depending on the anticipated hazard buildings and landscapes may be protected or hardened against the elements to withstand hurricanes, floods, and fires. Other options include adapting or retreating.

In the case of rising sea levels the options of protecting is building levees or other “hard” methods, accommodating would be raising structures or using “soft” or natural protection measures such as wetlands restoration, and finally retreating would be accomplished by moving or demolishing flood-prone buildings.

This is a huge issue for us because the southeastern US alone represents nearly 70% of the entire projected populations at risk.

Functional Resiliency

The second is Functional Resiliency.  This includes the systems where the building is still habitable and functions. Current standards and codes focus on preserving lives by reducing the likelihood of significant building damage or structural collapse from hazards But they generally don’t address the additional need to preserve quality of life by keeping buildings habitable and functioning as normally as possible, what we call ‘immediate occupancy.

Community Resiliency

The third is Community Resiliency which focuses on municipal and neighborhood resources that help people bounce back to normality or better.

The National Institute of Standards & Technology’s Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems (Guide) provides a practical and flexible approach to help all communities improve their resilience by setting priorities and allocating resources to manage risks for their prevailing hazards.

Aesthetic Resiliency

The fourth is Aesthetic Resilience which is best described by the Senegalese poet Baba Dioum, “In the end, we conserve only what we love.”